When teeth cannot be successfully treated by conventional root canal therapy, endodontic surgery can often be preformed to remove the infection from the end of the root. This is usually done when the pulp canals cannot be properly cleaned using conventional endodontic treatment due to blockage. After removing the infection from the end of the root, most often a filling is placed in the end of the root to seal off the canal system, stopping further infection from occurring. This quick (under an hour) and effective procedure has allowed Dr. Tolwin to save many hundreds of teeth that otherwise would have been extracted. Surgical microscopes are utilized to facilitate visualization of the surgical area, ensuring the highest rate of clinical success.